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How to install Guest Additions on Linux?

I often work with VirtualBox.

If I install VirtualBox on a laptop and then install Linux inside VirtualBox, the laptop is called the Host-OS and Linux is called the Guest-OS or the Guest.

After I install Linux as a Guest, I usually install Guest Additions inside the Guest.

To do this, I login to the Guest and start Firefox and Google-search for 'VirtualBox Guest Additions download'

I did that inside my Guest and captured a screen dump of me installing VirtualBox Guest Additions.
dan@cen115.dan ~ $ 
dan@cen115.dan ~ $ 
dan@cen115.dan ~ $ cd Downloads/
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ 
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ ls -la VB*iso
-rw-rw-r--. 1 dan dan 58343424 Jan 26 20:13 VBoxGuestAdditions_4.3.20.iso
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ 
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ mkdir g
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ 
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ sudo mount -o loop VB*iso g
[sudo] password for dan: 
dan is not in the sudoers file.  This incident will be reported.
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ 
dan@cen115.dan ~/Downloads $ su
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads # 
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads # sudo mount -o loop VB*iso g
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads # 
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads # cd g
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # 
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # ls -la 
total 50814
dr-xr-xr-x. 6 root root     2048 Nov 21 14:01 .
drwxr-xr-x. 3 dan  dan      4096 Jan 31 21:36 ..
dr-xr-xr-x. 2 root root     2048 Nov 21 14:01 32Bit
dr-xr-xr-x. 2 root root     2048 Nov 21 14:01 64Bit
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root      647 Sep 12 12:10 AUTORUN.INF
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root     6966 Nov 21 14:57
dr-xr-xr-x. 2 root root     2048 Nov 21 14:01 cert
dr-xr-xr-x. 2 root root     2048 Nov 21 14:01 OS2
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root     5523 Nov 21 14:57
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root  7146957 Nov 21 14:58
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 16434176 Nov 21 14:59 VBoxSolarisAdditions.pkg
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 17356976 Nov 21 15:00 VBoxWindowsAdditions-amd64.exe
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root   312384 Nov 21 14:56 VBoxWindowsAdditions.exe
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 10754048 Nov 21 14:57 VBoxWindowsAdditions-x86.exe
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # 
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # ./
Verifying archive integrity... All good.
Uncompressing VirtualBox 4.3.20 Guest Additions for Linux............
VirtualBox Guest Additions installer
Removing installed version 4.3.20 of VirtualBox Guest Additions...
Copying additional installer modules ...
Installing additional modules ...
Removing existing VirtualBox non-DKMS kernel modules[ OK ]
Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules
Building the main Guest Additions module[ OK ]
Building the shared folder support module[ OK ]
Building the OpenGL support module[ OK ]
Doing non-kernel setup of the Guest Additions[ OK ]
You should restart your guest to make sure the new modules are actually used

Installing the Window System drivers
Installing X.Org Server 1.15 modules[ OK ]
Setting up the Window System to use the Guest Additions[ OK ]
You may need to restart the hal service and the Window System (or just restart
the guest system) to enable the Guest Additions.

Installing graphics libraries and desktop services components[ OK ]
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # 
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # 
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # shutdown -r now

Broadcast message from dan@cen115.dan
	(/dev/pts/0) at 21:40 ...

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # Connection to i114 closed by remote host.
Connection to i114 closed.
dan@feb ~ $ 
dan@feb ~ $ 
After VirtualBox Guest Additions are installed the GUI desktop usually behaves much better than before.

Also I noticed that Guest Additions often get clobbered by Linux software updates.

The easy way to deal with that is to just run the file:
root@cen115.dan /home/dan/Downloads/g # ./
again. Let the syntax do the talking
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